Sunday, December 29, 2013

Tukey End Count, a Simple, Robust Statistical Method

The Tukey End Count is a statistically based test that will answer the question: "Is A different than B?"  The Tukey End Count is mathematically rigorous, can be implemented with simple equipment and requires no calculations.  That is, it is very user friendly in the field.

How it works:

Random samples of approximately the same size (count) are collected from Population A and Population B.  The populations are quarantined or marked (spray paint can work) so there is no risk of mixing.

The samples are ordered by the measurement of interest.  It could be the weight of individual chestnuts (large nuts receive a big price premium).  It could be weight of acorns in the terminal 24" of  branch.  It could be length of terminal extension. 

Sidebar One: One cool thing about the Tukey End Count is that it is not necessary to measure the samples with precision equipment or to run statistical calculations.  You only need to be able to order the samples.  So you can use visual comparisons instead of a micrometer.  You can use a simple balance beam comparison instead of fancy, digital scales.

The data is used to construct a table that lists from large-to-small which population that the item was drawn from.


Suppose we are sorting for seedling height at the end of one growing season.  Assume 100 seeds were planted from population A and another 100 seeds were planted from population B.  Also assume that 20% are culled.  That is, only the 80 tallest seedlings from each seedlot of 100 seeds are graded.  From tallest to shortest the seedlot yields:

Tallest B-B-B-B-A-B....148 seedlings in the middle...B-A-A-A-A-A Shortest

This sample has a Tukey End Count of 9.  The 4 tallest seedlings were from seedlot B and the 5 shortest seedlings were from seedlot A.  4 + 5 = 9

As a practical matter, a Tukey End Count of 6 or more is sufficient to determine, with 95% confidence level, that the two populations are statistically different.

Sidebar Two: Another impressive thing about the Tukey End Count is the stability of "6" as a break-point.  A Tukey End Count of 6 still works even if you only have three from each population.  This degenerate case has been call  "The Shainin Six Pack test".  It should be clear that limiting the sample to 3+3 makes sense only when it is extremely expensive to collect more data.

Final note:  It is not necessary to order from large-to-small.  One will get the same Tukey End Count if the individual items are ordered from small-to-large. 

Tuesday, December 24, 2013

Letter to the Editor

From one of the blog's readers:

Hey Joe,

I was wondering if you knew of any sources for sweet acorn scion wood. I would like to try my hand at topworking some oaks. Do you have favorite techniques? Timing? What about compatability? I am quite comfortable with hickories and walnut grafting. Could we have this conversation on the NAFEX website forum so others can benefit or join in?

I extend these questions to the readership at large.  Either answer through the "Comments" function or shoot me an email.   If you send me an email, let me know how/if you want to be identified as I want to respect your privacy.

Regarding the NAFEX website forum, my email is not recognized by the database.  I have a request in to the administrator to see if we can iron that out.  Then I can investigate bouncing questions to the forum.

Thank-you for your interest and questions.


Sunday, December 22, 2013

Famine Foods

Historically, one of the most important functions of oak and chestnuts have been as a fall-back food source for human beings.

A notable thing about famines is that they tend to cluster together.  The Biblical story of Joseph and the Seven Fat Cows and the Seven Lean Cows is not atypical.

The chart shown below indicates "famine" years in Italy.  Incidentally, a "famine year" was typically the second year of crop failure.  Peasants and cities were intelligent enough to hold sufficient reserves to buffer against one crop failure.  But two crop failures in-a-row exceeded the food reserves and created famine.

Many reasons are offered for the famine years clumping together, separated by many decades of famine-free year
-Plagues reduced the population well below the carrying capacity of the land thus causing many decades of over-production until the population recovered
-New agricultural technologies and crop species causing a step-like increase in the carrying capacity of the land resulting in many years of over-production....until the population caught up.
-War and civil strife destroying standing crops and distracting the rural population from effectively tilling the land.

The article also implied that a high degree of plant disease inoculum  for diseases like wheat rust would continue in the environment and would continue to bedevil production for many years, even after weather patterns returned to "normal".

Some regions fared better than others.  Among those that fared well, according to the source sited above:  

"...could make relatively ample recourse to rustic crops and to the cultivation of trees like chestnuts and olives, more resistant than wheat to the meteorological adversities..."
 The rural areas were historically left to fend for themselves.
"...during a severe famine the cities were clearly favoured over the rural areas, which tended to become a kind of no man’s land in which it was dangerous to venture without taking precautions - a fact which surely had also a further, damaging impact on food production..."
Consequently, the rural areas were wise to armor themselves with multiple, backup food sources.

Red Oaks

There is a very good article at the QDMA website about why it is advantageous to have "Red Oak" type trees in your plantings.

"Red oak acorns remain viable, and edible, far longer on the ground than white oak acorns. In fact, long after white oak acorns are gone or rotted, long after hunters have put their camo back in the closet and settled by the fireplace, long after fall food plots have stopped growing and corn fields have been looted, deer may still be feeding on red oak acorns if any were produced that year."

A necropsy performed on two whitetail deer that had been killed in Louisiana by a lightening strike on June 3 revealed:

"Just to be sure no other factors were involved, David (Moreland) performed a full necropsy on both deer, including a look at their stomach contents. Both deer were full of water oak acorns – in June! Here’s a photo of the sorted stomach contents of one of the deer, showing just how many acorns were found"

The pictures included in the article are impressive and I recommend you pop over and look.

So consider including oaks of the Red Oak family if it is important to you that wildlife can find a meal over a long period of time, or if you are planting oak trees as part of a "famine plan".

Friday, December 20, 2013

Leaching Table

This table is intended to be used as a starting point for planning.  Actual processes should be guided by the quality of the end result.

Column on left is the ratio of water to acorn grits.

Row along top is the number of water changes.

The shaded "cells" are predictions regarding percentage of original tannin remaining.  1% (of original) was selected as it would  result in 10% tannin by dry weight being reduced down to 0.1%.  Bainbridge indicated that Korean acorn flour was considered edible when the tannin level was reduced to 0.18%. 

Your Mileage Will Vary.  Agitation, temperature, time, pH of rinse water, coarseness of grits will influence effectiveness of leaching.  Tannin content and solubility of tannin in the acorns will influence the actual amount of reduction required to create a palatable product.

Volume H20 -to-acorn grits 1 rinse 2 rinses 3 rinses 4 rinses 5 rinses 6 rinses 7 rinses
1 50.0% 25.0% 12.5% 6.3% 3.1% 1.6% 0.8%
1.5 40.0% 16.0% 6.4% 2.6% 1.0% 0.4% 0.2%
2 33.3% 11.1% 3.7% 1.2% 0.4% 0.1%  
3 25.0% 6.3% 1.6% 0.4% 0.1%    
4 20.0% 4.0% 0.8% 0.2%       
5 16.7% 2.8% 0.5% 0.1%      

Hard Mast Management

Guest Post by Derek S. Dougherty
Dougherty & Dougherty Forestry Services, Inc.
PO Box 82013
Athens, GA 30608

Phone: 1-888-285-0947

This article first appeared on the Quality Deer Management Association website.  Reposted with permission from both author and QDMA.  QDMA masthead reads, 
"Ensuring the future of white-tailed deer, wildlife habitat & our hunting heritage. 1.800.209.DEER"
 ---Start of Article---
All experienced whitetail hunters realize that oak acorns are an important food source. Most also know there are two main types of oaks — red oaks and white oaks. While white oaks often get more attention because they are generally more preferred by deer, red oaks are equally important because of their more consistent annual yields. For these reasons, land managers often leave both groups of oaks during timber harvests and even plant supplemental oaks. This is often the extent of a hunter’s or landowner’s knowledge about oaks and their management.

But, much more can be done to manage this important food group and it can be profitable as well. Quality oak timber, especially high-grade red oak, brings a premium price. As supplies of oak sawtimber dwindle, prices are likely to increase even more. Many sites that produce quality oaks can produce quality pines as well. This, combined with the higher internal rates of return for pine plantations, have caused many landowners to convert hardwood stands to pine plantations. With the potential for increasing hardwood prices and the increasing interest by landowners in maximizing acorn production for wildlife, we can financially justify growing quality oak timber.

To produce oak mast and lumber profitably, land managers must understand several factors that affect timber quality and mast production. Because there are so many different species of oaks, I’ll stick to the basics, beginning with the differences between red and white oaks.

On an upland site in North Carolina, you may encounter scarlet oak, water oak, northern red oak, black oak, and southern red oak. All are red oaks, but of these, northern red oak generally produces the highest quality lumber and highest stumpage price. Water oak, on the other hand, generally produces the poorest timber and lowest prices of this group. In the bottomland hardwood areas of Georgia, we may find cherrybark oak, willow oak, water oak, and shumard oak, among others. Again, all are red oaks, but cherrybark oak usually produces the best lumber and prices.

For the white oaks, throughout much of the U.S. we find white oak, post oak, and chestnut oak on the uplands and swamp chestnut, white oak, bur oak, and overcup oak in the bottomlands. While the major difference between white and red oaks is the vessel structure inside the tree, a simplified way to identify these groups is to look at the leaf tips or lobes. With a few exceptions, red oak leaves are pointed and white oak leaves are rounded.

In this article, we won’t provide exhaustive descriptions and characteristics for all the oak species. For an overview, readers may want to refer to the article, Mast Trees-The Permanent Food Plot, by Bassett and Whatley, published in the December 2002 issue of Wildlife Trends. Landowners and hunters should also purchase an informative tree identification book for their area. These references will describe the range, leaf characteristics, acorn size, acorn drop timing and persistence, and other?key characteristics.

Like pine timber, there are many uses for oak timber. Small diameter oak trees can be used for pulpwood production. Medium sized trees can be used to make pallets. Larger trees are used for sawtimber and are much more valuable. Some sawlogs are worth much more than others, depending on the grade of lumber they are capable of producing.

The North Carolina piedmont produces some of the country’s best oak timber. Stephen Henderson, the head procurement forester for McDowell Lumber Company in Asheboro, North Carolina, purchases a large volume of quality hardwood annually. Stephen described oak grades this way:

“In our area, we basically have four grades of sawlogs,” Stephen said. “The most desirable is ‘Prime.’ An oak tree needs to have a dbh (diameter at breast height), 4 1/2 feet above the ground) measurement of at least 20 inches to be prime. More importantly, a prime log must be 100 percent clear (containing no limbs or limb scars) on all faces. Next, No. 1 logs must have a dbh of at least 17 inches and be 75 percent clear. Finally, No. 2s and No. 3s must have a dbh of 13 inches and have at least 50 percent and 25 percent clear wood, respectively. The value increases substantially as the grade improves. Currently, No. 2 grade logs are worth about 200 percent more than No. 3 grade logs. No. 1 grade logs are worth about 33 percent more than No. 2, and prime grade timber is worth about 50 percent more than No. 1. For example, while timber prices differ greatly by region, species, markets, and logging costs, prime red oak logs delivered to our mill today bring about $850 per mbf (thousand board feet) Doyle scale, compared to low-grade logs which bring around $200 per mbf.”

If we are growing oak timber for profit, we should attempt to produce the highest grade lumber possible. So, which sites produce the best oak and which species produce the best grade sawlogs?

“Site productivity depends primarily on slope position and aspect,” Henderson said. “The best upland soils for quality hardwood growth are usually found on north and west facing slopes. As for the red oaks, on uplands in our area northern red oak is the preferred species. Good southern red oak is second, probably followed by willow and then scarlet oak. On bottomlands, cherrybark oak is preferred, followed by willow oak. Of the white oaks, true white oak is preferred on the uplands and swamp white oak and swamp chestnut oak are preferred in the bottomlands.”

We have preferred oaks for lumber, but what about for deer forage? There are certain acorns that deer prefer, but a diversity of oak species ensures reliability and availability over the longest period. White oaks, for instance, often drop around September and are a preferred early fall forage, when they bear. Some red oaks drop a month or so later, in November and December, when acorns can compromise up to 75 percent of a deer’s diet. Some of the smaller acorns, like water oak, willow oak, and southern red oak, even persist later into the winter. Thus, diversity is the key. For timber production, a mix also is generally recommended.

(Editors note: Oak trees that drop their leaves first and then drop heavy crops of small acorns into those leaves are desirable from a wildlife standpoint.  Deer, turkeys and squirrels cannot efficiently mop up all of the acorns.  Wildlife keeps coming back to that stand of trees because they can always find some acorns if they hunt around enough.  Smaller acorns are also attractive to a wider range of wildlife....including ducks.)

“The ideal scenario is to manage for both red and white oaks,” Henderson said. “Red oaks mature faster, but white oaks may live twice as long. With a good mix, you could remove the red oaks first and leave the white oaks for a subsequent harvest.”

Knowing that a mixed oak stand is desirable, how do we get one? This can be especially tricky when existing hardwood stands are dominated by less desirable species like sweetgum, sycamore, maple, hickory, and poplar. Let’s look briefly at three primary ways we can produce an oak dominated stand: (1) we can work with existing, intermediate-aged mixed hardwood stands, (2) we can establish an oak plantation, or (3) we can regenerate a hardwood stand naturally.

“The best option economically is to work with intermediate stands and precommercially or commercially thin them at ages 15 to 25, leaving ‘crop’ trees of the best quality and preferred species,” Henderson said. “If you have a timber stand with a good component of oaks, identify them and then remove the competing species.”

A simple way to do this is by cutting down every tree touching the ‘crop’ tree’s crown. Following the thinning, leave the trees to grow until the next planned select-cut or clearcut harvest.”

But what if you don’t have an existing intermediate-aged stand with a good component of preferred species? Instead, you have an old field or cutover. While it’s not easy or cheap, you can establish an oak plantation from scratch. As with pine plantations, you will need to control competition from weeds, shrubs, and other trees. However, there are substantial limitations when compared to pine plantation management. The use of selective herbicides is limited because hardwoods are very sensitive to many commonly used herbicides.

Because of the complexities associated with large scale hardwood plantings, landowners should seek professional advice and assistance. However, I will provide some basic guidelines here:
(1) Match the oak species to the site. Research the characteristics (e.g., drainage and nutritional needs) of the species you are considering planting and make sure the site is suitable.
(2) Use quality planting stock. Without good stock, survival problems are likely. Most state forest service nurseries provide bare-root stock. Some private nurseries, like International Forest Company ( or 800-633-4506) in Moultrie, Georgia, even provide improved containerized stock. The Forest Landowner’s Association publishes an annual directory of hardwood seedling nurseries. For more information about?quality oak seedlings, contact the US Forest Service in Athens, Georgia (706-559-4288) and review the extensive research completed on the subject by Paul Kormanick.
(3) Control the competition. In many areas, this is done mechanically. There are some chemical herbicide options now available which may be cheaper or less intensive. Contact your local herbicide sales representative for options.

If you are really interested in converting a cutover to an oak plantation, consider contacting the North Carolina State University Hardwood Cooperative (919-515-2891) for results from their chemical site preparation studies. For herbaceous competition, you may need to selectively spray a non-selective herbicide such as glyphosate, making sure not to contact the oak foliage. Multiple herbaceous weed control treatments may be beneficial during the first and second growing seasons. Again, check with your local herbicide sales representative for recommendations and product label specifications.

Establishing oak plantations can be expensive. But what about regenerating oak stands naturally? While this is a good option in some areas, it too has obstacles to overcome. The main obstacle is that most oaks are considered “climax” species, or those that grow slowly but are long lived and dominate when the forest matures. Thus, after a timber harvest, faster growing species like poplar, sweetgum, sycamore, and maple will overtake the site and shade out a large percentage of the oaks.

In Piedmont hardwood areas, silviculturists use a couple of methods to favor oaks. First, they may leave enough mature, acorn-bearing oaks (15-30 per acre) during the timber harvest to provide a “shelterwood” effect. The shade from the residual trees deters the growth of the light-loving species and encourages the young oak sprouts. The residual trees are later removed (3 to 5 years) after the young oaks get established.

Another method is to control the competition with hot controlled burns. The fire will also burn the oaks, but the oaks, with a larger root system and adequate reserves, may resprout more vigorously than their competitors after the fire. For more detailed information about this technique, refer to an article by David Van Lear in the May-June 1999 issue of Tree Farmer.

One final suggestion would be a hybrid of the two techniques outlined above. After letting your stand resprout naturally following a clearcut or shelterwood harvest, use a foliar herbicide to treat the undesirable species and then plant bare-root or containerized oaks in the competitor’s place.

In summary, if you want to maximize the wildlife or timber value from your oaks, you should incorporate some of these advanced oak management techniques into your management plan. If your knowledge about the subject is limited, you are not alone. Fortunately, quality information and expertise is readily available.

Contact a professional forestry consultant, state forestry school, the U.S. Forest Service, a chemical herbicide sales representative, or even the nearby grade hardwood mill owner for advice. Then, put your new knowledge to work. It will be worthwhile financially and recreationally. In the years that follow, your family and friends will look forward with great anticipation to spending another successful opening day on the productive oak ridge you have improved or established.

About the author:
Derek Dougherty received his BS in Forest Resources, Forest Business from The University of Georgia and is president of Dougherty & Dougherty Forestry Services, Inc., in Aberdeen, North Carolina and president of Progressive Timberland Management, Inc., in Macon, Georgia.  

Wild Game Advocacy Groups


There are a number of wildlife advocacy groups that are passionately committed to promoting their species of choice.

Examples include:
Quality Deer Management Association....Link
National Wild Turkey Federation..........Link
Ducks Unlimited.............................Link
Pheasants Forever...........................Link
Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation.............Link

Members of these groups (and many other, similar groups) donate extravagant amounts of their time, their talent and their treasure on their interests.  Many of these members manage thousands of acres of property.

One facet of their commitment that is germane to this blog is their focus on managing the habitat.  They strive to improve the habitat for the short term benefit of their target species.  And every member I have ever talked with wants to leave a legacy to the next generation.  The legacy they want to leave is a habitat that demonstrates long term resilience, a habitat that will keep getting better.

Oaks are a keystone species for many of these game species.  Deer and turkey in particular are natural allies of oak and chestnut enthusiasts.

We can offer them access to some of our best seed-stock.  We can offer tours of our plantings.  We can post pictures and yield data on the internet.  They, in turn, can offer us vast testing grounds.

In closing

The prime rule in journalism is: "Follow the Money."  Members of these groups show little hesitation in opening up their wallets for items that have a proven track record of improving the habitat for their species of choice.

A young man once asked Ed Fackler what it would take to become a profitable farmer.  Ed's advice was to become a turf grass expert and to learn a little bit about golf.  The same people who choke at spending over a dollar a pound for food they will put in their bodies show little hesitation spending $110 for one golf club.

The next post on this blog will be a guest post that originally appeared on the Quality Deer Management Association Website.

Tuesday, December 17, 2013

Acorn Use as Food, Recipes

 Guest Post by David A. Bainbridge  



The proof of the pudding is in the eating, however, and it doesn't matter how nutritious the food is if you don't like it. I'm confident you'll like the flavor of acorns and will enjoy the recipes presented here. You can also explore new recipes on your own. Acorn meal can be used in many ways. Some ideas to get you started: acorn meal in place of corn meal; whole acorns, acorn meal, or acorn flour instead of chestnuts or chickpeas; in most recipes in whole or part as a replacement for buckwheat groats or millet, and in some cases as total or partial replacement of bulgur, whole wheat, or wheatberries. 

A Cautionary Note:
All recipes are for sweet acorns, either those varieties that are naturally sweet or bitter varieties that have been leached or neutralized. The considerable variation in acorn composition may make some adjustment in the recipes necessary, with less or more oil and less or more fluid. If your acorns are bland (many are) more spice may be added, or if the flavor is very good let it stand more on its own. Experiment to make recipes work with your acorns. Throw out spoiled acorns. They discolor and become a bit darker as they dry, but don't use ones with mold or decay. (Although some tribes enjoyed a special moldy acorn bread and treated acorns to
maximize mold.) 

Peggy Edward's Unleavened Acorn Bread
Grease 3 loaf pans. Mix thoroughly:
l cup oil 3-3/4 cups leached and ground acorn meal
5 beaten eggs 1-1/8 cups whole wheat flour
1-1/4 cups honey 1-1/2 tsp. salt
1-1/2 tsp. vanilla 1/2 tsp. baking powder
1-1/2 tsp. cinnamon 1-1/2 tsp. baking soda
Add pine nuts, dried elderberries, currants and/or etc. Pour mixture into pans and bake at
350 deg F for 1 hour or more.

Catherine Gearing's Leavened Acorn Bread
1-2/3 cups milk 1 Tbsp salt
3 Tbsp sugar 1/4 cup shortening
3/4 cup warm water
2 packages active yeast or
2 cakes compressed yeast
4 cups flour 3 cups acorn flour
Combine milk, sugar, salt, and shortening and beat until bubbles appear and shortening melts. Cool to lukewarm. Put water in a bowl. Mix in yeast. Combine flour and acorn flour, then add to mixture. Beat until smooth; add enough remaining flour until dough is easy to handle. Turn onto a floured board. Knead 5 minutes or until smooth and
elastic. Put dough in a large greased bowl. Turn over to bring greased side up. Cover with damp towel. Let rise at 85 degrees F for 1-1/2 hours or until doubled. Grease two loaf pans, punch dough down. Turn out onto board and knead to distribute air bubbles. Divide in half. Shape each half into a loaf, and place in loaf pans. Cover. Let rise 1 hour. Bake at 425 degrees F for 25-30 minutes. Above 3500' elev., set oven to 475

Beat together in a bowl:
2 Tbsp. of cooking oil
3 Tbsp. of molasses
1 egg
Stir in:
1/2 cup of milk
1 cup of acorn flour
Then add:
1 cup whole wheat flour
1 tsp. double-acting baking powder
1/2 tsp. soda
1/4 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. of ginger
Stir quickly until all the dry ingredients are moistened and the batter is slightly lumpy. Then pour the batter into a greased muffin tin and bake at 425 degrees F for 20 to 25 minutes. Remove the tin from the oven, allow it to cool five minutes, turn the muffins over and serve. 

Acorn Use as Food, Edibility

Guest Post by David A. Bainbridge  

            The acorns from many species of oaks are edible raw, just as they are harvested. Sweet acorns have been reported for Quercus gambelii, Q. mongolica., Q. emoryi, Q. dumosa, Q. vaccinifolia, Q. stellata, Q. virginiana, Q. garryana, Q agrifolia Q. macrocarpa, Q. lobata, Q. pumila, Q. muehlenbergii, Q. alba, Q. michauxii, Q. brandeegei, Q. gramuntia, Q. E'sculus, Q. aegilops, and Q. ilex var ballota (Bainbridge and Asmus, 1986; Bainbridge, 1984; Coyle and Roberts, 1975; Loudon, 1844; Bohrer, 1972; Chestnut, 1974; Brandis, 1972; Hedrick, 1919; Michaux, 1810; Ofcarcik et al., 1971; Smith, 1950; Fray, 1986). Undoubtedly, other species and varieties are equally sweet and more flavorful.

            A careful worldwide search for good cultivars is long overdue because there is hope of finding sweet acorns even in those species normally considered bitter. Some of these include the best tasting acorns, with cashew and chocolate overtones.

            It is also practical to harvest and use the bitter varieties. The tannins which causes the bitterness can be leached from acorns or acorn meal with water. Using hot water hastens the process. Studies at Dong-guk University in Seoul, South Korea showed the tannin level was reduced from 9 percent to 0.18 percent by leaching, without loss of essential amino acids, (Kim and Shin, 1975). Virtually all of the acorns the native Californians used were bitter and were leached with water to remove the bitterness. They apparently based their acorn preference on oil content, storability, and flavor rather than sweetness. However, the Cahuilla people in Southern California remember sweeter acorns from their past (in the South-Central U.S.) and consider their loss as a fall from grace, like Adam and Eve's expulsion from the garden (Bainbridge, 1987a).

            Native Americans also sweetened bitter acorns with iron-rich red earth, wood ashes (Editor's note, leaching with wood ashes hastens process by increases tannin solubility and might increase niacin availability), and other ingredients to neutralize the acids. Steaming or baking were sufficient for some acorns (Chestnut, 1974; Kavasch, 1979; and Gifford, 1936).

            Acorn meal can be substituted for corn meal in most recipes (Bainbridge, 1986b). Acorns can also be used in place of chickpeas, nuts, peanuts, and olives in a variety of dishes. Acorn meal and acorn pieces are excellent in soups and stews and were often used that way by native Californians. Acorns can also be treated with pickle brines or the lye treatment used for olives (Wolf, 1945; Bainbridge, 1986b). Acorns have also been used to make coffee-like drinks (Kavasch, 1979). The success of the venture depends on the particular acorn and technique used. Q. muehlenbergii was especially favored for this purpose in the Midwest, (Ofcarcik et al., 1971). Q. robur and Q. frainetto have been used in Europe where the resulting drink is referred to as "Eichel kaffee", or acorn coffee (Sholto Douglas, 1978; Readers Digest, 1984). A similar acorn coffee has been used in Mexico, (Usher, 1974). Raccahout, a spicy Turkish acorn drink more like hot chocolate, was included in the Larousse Gastronomique until recently.

            Acorns can also be used to make acorn oil by boiling, crushing, or pressing. Acorn oil has been used as a cooking oil in Algeria and Morocco (Loudon, 1844; Hedrick, 1919; Smith, 1950). It was used by the Indians of the eastern U.S. for cooking and as a salve for burns and injuries (Michaux, 1810; Smith, 1950). Some varieties contain more than 30 percent oil, equal or greater than the best oil olives ( Wolf, 1945; Ofcarcik et al., 1971). The quality and flavor of the oil is comparable to olive oil (Wolf, 1945; Smith, 1950; Bainbridge, 1985a). Table 4 presents further information on acorn oil.

Species            Quercus           Quercus           5 other             Olive               
                        agrifolia           ilex                  speciesa                                

Specific               0.9170          0.9086             0.9100             0.914-.919   
Refractive index 1.4709          1.4701             1.4627             1.466-1.468 
Saponification       192.3            189.05             191.45               187-196   
Olieic  acid%           --                  57.05               58.31                 83.5-84.4 
Palmatic acid%      --                   12.40               11.43                   6.9-9.4    
Linoleic acid%         --                  30.50               37.50                   4.0-4.6 
Flash point               --                   --                      360°C                 343°C 
aaverage of available data
Acorn data: Jameison (1943), Wolf (1945), Hopkins et al (1953), Khan (1977), Marwat et al (1978).
Olive and corn oil: Weast (1979) and Windholz (1976).